The England captain and Liverpool star were named by the world football’s governing body on a 10-man shortlist announced on Tuesday afternoon.
Similarly vying for the honour are World Cup winners Antoine Griezmann, Kylian Mbappe and Raphael Varane, as well as tournament Golden Ball recipient Luka Modric.
Chelsea’s Eden Hazard has also been nominated alongside Manchester City playmaker Kevin De Bruyne and usual suspects Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi.
However, there was no room for Neymar, despite the former Barcelona forward starring with 28 goals during his injury-shortened maiden campaign at Paris Saint-Germain.
The 26-year-old was unable to lead his country past the World Cup quarter-finals as Brazil were beaten by Belgium.
The Best FIFA Men’s Player award, which has been running in its current format since 2016, covers the period from July 3, 2017 to July 15, 2018.
Ronaldo has taken top spot in the last two consecutive years.
Players, coaches, fans and media will all vote on the honour, which stands alongside best women’s player, best men’s coach, best women’s coach, best goalkeeper and the FIFA fan and Puskas awards.
A final list of three nominees will be declared in September before the winner is announced at a glitzy awards ceremony.
Kane’s nomination comes after he topped the 40-goal mark with Tottenham across all competitions last term before captaining England to their first World Cup semi-final for 28 years in Russia and also sealing the Golden Ball for top scorer.
HOW THE FIFA AWARD IS DECIDED
Public voting via the official FIFA website opened on Tuesday and is due to close on August 10.
That ballot accounts for 25 per cent of the award, with the other 75 per cent split evenly between the following:
The captains of all national teams.
The head coaches of all national teams.
A 200-strong group of international media.
A final-three man shortlist will be announced in early September.
Salah, meanwhile, netted on 44 occasions for Liverpool in his first season back in English football following a move from AS Roma and scooped a plethora of individual awards including PFA Player of the Year.
Griezmann and Mbappe notched four times apiece after fine domestic years as France claimed their second world title in Russia.
WHO SELECTS THE NOMINEES?
This year, the nominees were selected by a panel of 12 football experts that included Lothar Matthaus, Fabio Capello, Didier Drogba, Kaka, Frank Lampard, Ronaldo, Alessandro Nesta and Carlos Alberto.
FULL NOMINEES FOR BEST FIFA MEN’S PLAYER AWARD 2018
Cristiano Ronaldo (33, Juventus and Portugal)
Kevin De Bruyne (27, Manchester City and Belgium)
Antoine Griezmann (27, Atletico Madrid and France)
Eden Hazard (27, Chelsea and Belgium)
Harry Kane (24, Tottenham and England)
Kylian Mbappe (19, Paris Saint-Germain and France)
Lionel Messi (31, Barcelona and Argentina)
Luka Modric (32, Real Madrid and Croatia)
Mohamed Salah (26, Liverpool and Egypt)
Raphael Varane (25, Real Madrid and France).
Modric played a pivotal role in that latter triumph before also inspiring Croatia to their first-ever World Cup final appearance.
While Zlatko Dalic’s side were ultimately defeated 4-2 at Moscow’s Luzhniki Stadium, their captain was still voted as the best player of the tournament.
That aforementioned European success proved to be the last contribution of a record-breaking nine-year Madrid stint for Ballon d’Or holder Ronaldo, who has since joined Juventus in a £100million transfer.
He also scored 44 goals in his final campaign at Real, while great rival Lionel Messi hit one more as dominant Barcelona sealed a domestic double. Both players exited what could be their final World Cup at the last-16 stage.
Silver Ball recipient Eden Hazard and Kevin De Bruyne reached the last four with Belgium and ensured the Red Devils pipped England to third place.
The former also won the FA Cup with Chelsea, while De Bruyne was one of the stars of Manchester City’s top-flight title triumph.